Bosnia and Herzegovina's twentieth anniversary since the signing of the Dayton Agreement, which ended the three-year war in that country, is deeply divided, as was 1995. and in many reviews and comments on the occasion of this anniversary, local media find it difficult to find someone who would opt for optimism and faith in a better future.
After the war, the dramatic negotiations in Dayton
As far as the events of twenty years ago are concerned, today the reason for the shared feelings in BiH is the fact that 21 is. November, the day the initialed peace agreement was proclaimed in the Republika Srpska on a holiday and a non-working day, and in the Federation of BiH it is only one in a series of ordinary days.
After more than three years of exhausting struggles marked by massive civilian casualties and the genocide of Srebrenica Bosniaks, August 1995. brought a milestone in the war in BiH.
Topical attack on Serbian positions at the Markale Market in Sarajevo 28. August 1995. in which 43 people were killed, and 75 was wounded, was a drop topping the cup of patience of the international community. There was a campaign of massive air strikes by NATO on the positions of the Bosnian Serb army, and then the ground offensive of the Croatian Army, the Croatian Defense Council (HVO) and the Army of BiH, thus creating the prerequisites for organizing a peace conference under the patronage of the United States.
Multiple dramatic negotiations, with the mediation of Richard Holbrooke's "bulldozer bullshit", led by the US Air Force Wrigth-Patterson in Dayton, Ohio, led by 21. November 1995. to the initialling of the peace agreement officially signed at the ceremony held in Paris 14. December that year.
The rest were noted that the main actors of that act were then President of the BiH Presidency Alija Izetbegović, Croatian President Franjo Tudjman and President of the State of 1995. the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Slobodan Milosevic.
This created the legal basis for the establishment of the new state of BiH, as the successor of the Republic of BiH, which decided on independence in April 1992. years.
Dayton stopped war and brought divisions
The new state has become a polygon of the application of unusual hybrid constitutional solutions, of which the oddest determinants of the two entities are.
"When such entities are so good that the Americans did not do for themselves," it was one of the most popular Sarajevo jihadies that circulated among people astonished in what the state lives after the November 1995. years.
However, with this absurdity, and two decades later, for example, residents of Sarajevo's Dobrinja neighborhood, whose residential buildings are inter-entity lines, squeezed into several places, which is the best illustration of the situation for the local media in the whole country.
Sarajlija Miloš Krstić, for example, resides at the address of Dobrinjska street Indire Gandi, which is based on dayton maps in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina but part of the building in which he lives in Republika Srpska. The whole street is neglected, and in the evening it is in the dark, because no one knows who is responsible for it.
"Travu here hair once a year. When the bushes are left to rust. I live in Gandije Street in FBiH and I can not say that I am satisfied with anything here, "Krstic said to" Dnevni Avaz ", thus giving her a mark to celebrate Dayton's anniversary.
The central marking of the anniversary of the end of peace negotiations, instead of in BiH, was handled where everything happened - in Dayton. A multi-day conference was held at the local university, attended by numerous Bosnian-Herzegovinian politicians and direct participants in the negotiations. Among them were former US President Bill Clinton.
"Dayton was possible because the circumstances in the field changed, not only because of the NATO campaign after Srebrenica, but also on the advancement of the Croat and Bosniak forces, which led to changes in territorial control, which was only partially corrected during the negotiations," he said. on this occasion Clinton, which also summed up the most important achievement from Dayton.
How to change the Dayton legacy?
Clinton has admitted that the solutions to the Dayton Agreement are complicated because they allow for numerous blockades, but he says it should not be an excuse for the lack of progress in BiH, as is the case today.
Basically almost all Bosnian politicians agree with Clinton, but there is no consensus about how things change.
Twenty years later things have taken on absurd dimensions. While they are 1995. Bosnian Serb politicians were bitterly opposed to Dayton's controversy because they feared that they had ruined their dream of an independent state, they have now largely become fierce advocates of its preservation.
For Croats and Bosniaks, the Dayton Agreement is a serious obstacle to progress and normal life.
Croatian politicians maintain that the current structure of BiH generates permanent inequality of the Croatian people, while Bosniak politicians are in the position that it simply harms everyone because it disables a functional state. But Milorad Dodik, the president of the Republika Srpska, insists on returning to the "original Dayton".
"RS wants to be a factor and a subject in the same way that it is written in the constitution and the Dayton Compromise," Dodik told Belgrade from one of the meetings held there on the occasion of 20. Dayton's anniversaries.
Implementing Dodik's plan would actually mean that BiH would return to 1995. and that, for example, there are only three ministers and that the state has minimal and symbolic powers.
"We'll split the needle in the haystack," 1995 said. the year after the signing of the Dayton Agreement by Momcilo Krajisnik, then Bosnian Serb parliamentary speaker who was later convicted of war crimes. In these few words, Krajišnik described the way in which RS was thought to implement Dayton when it was 1996. elected for a Serbian member of the BiH Presidency, also rejected the idea of coming to work in an Austro-Hungarian building in the center of Sarajevo, where the headquarters of the institution are located.
The BiH Presidency in the first round of meeting therefore had to hold the first session in one cafeteria, and then offer it as a compromise solution to continue gathering in the National Museum.
Krajisnik, however, has consistently suggested that a completely new building "for joint institutions" be made, somewhere on the inter-Entity separation line, which would have two entries - one from the Federation of BiH and the other from RS.
It is exactly this twentieth century that Dodik, who is persistently threatened by referendums, repeatedly mentions RS independence as an inevitable outcome.
One of the participants in the Dayton negotiations was also the then Croatian member of the Presidency of BiH, Ivo Komšić, who from the outset spoke openly against the document that was agreed and initialed there because of a series of absurd constraints it contained, especially because of the legalization of Republika Srpska resulting from war crimes and ethnic cleansing.
He, as the current mayor of Sarajevo, is also invited to a conference that was held this week in Dayton.
"There was nothing agreed in the Dayton negotiations that was already agreed, here it just became apparent. All tears, persecutions, beliefs, all demands, pressures, rejections, and acceptments were only a suicide after birth for what was already born, "said Komšić at the Dayton Summit, summing up all the achievements of a now-historic event of two decades ago.